<sub id="bjjdl"></sub>

<sub id="bjjdl"><font id="bjjdl"><cite id="bjjdl"></cite></font></sub><progress id="bjjdl"><meter id="bjjdl"></meter></progress>
<big id="bjjdl"></big><sub id="bjjdl"><thead id="bjjdl"><font id="bjjdl"></font></thead></sub>
    <big id="bjjdl"></big>

    <meter id="bjjdl"></meter>

    <form id="bjjdl"></form>

            雨楓軒原創文學網 - 純凈的綠色文學家園 !

            雨楓軒

            中國人有“匠心”嗎?

            時間:2019-06-04來源:網友提供 作者:維舟 點擊:
            中國人有“匠心”嗎?


            近年來,你可能也不時在媒體、廣告中看到“匠心”一詞。這一風潮最早應起始于2014年李宗盛為新百倫制作的一支廣告《致匠心》,因為從百度搜索指數來看,“匠心”一詞正是從那時起逐漸升溫、盛行的。在那之后,“匠心”就變成了手藝精神的象征,味千拉面的廣告片中甚至將之升華為“一種信仰”,所謂“食之匠心,一碗面、一輩子”,強調持久專注、精益求精地做好一件小事。很快,這個詞就從廣告語變為大眾流行語,甚至進入正式文件,諸如“40年匠心前行,中國制造邁向新高度”、“中國制造如何用匠心精神打造國產新力量”、“匠人鑄匠心,匠心成大業——中國制造2025呼喚更多大國工匠”之類的標題到處可見。
             
             
            在時下這個浮躁的時代,這種強調專注改進的精神乍看與潮流背道而馳,但事實上,很多事都相反相成——正是潮流的浮躁,才使得這種人所缺乏的“匠心”變成了推崇的對象,因為能做到的人少之又少。加上近些年消費者對品質的關注、戰略層面對中國制造業升級的迫切心理,遂與“匠心”之說一拍即合。但這一話語中最耐人尋味的一點在于,它盡管常常以一種“傳統”的面貌出現,仿佛手藝人堅守著老一輩的做法,始終不渝地致力于完善工藝,但這其實對中國人來說是一種相當新鮮的理念,至少也是“被發明出來的傳統”。
             
            “匠心”從哪來?
            李宗盛在《致匠心》里這樣詮釋“匠心”的理念:“我知道,手藝人往往意味著:固執、緩慢、少量勞作,但是這些背后所隱含的是:專注技藝、對完美的追求。所以,我們寧愿這樣,必須這樣,也一直這樣。”
             
            這番話雖然成功地激起了很多人的共鳴,但卻是一種迥異以往的新詮釋。當然,中國傳統上也有“匠心”一說,但正如“別具匠心”、“匠心獨運”等成語中所暗示的那樣,那其實都著重指嫻熟技藝基礎上的精巧構思(如《核舟記》感慨“技亦靈怪矣哉”),而非執著、專注、不斷改進這類含義。后一種理念倒不如說來自日本的職人精神,體現在著名導演小津安二郎那句名言中:“我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐。”
             
            小津安二郎小津安二郎
            這是中國傳統相當缺乏的一種匠人精神。漢學家溝口雄三曾毫不客氣地指出,儒家所缺的恰恰是有組織的、合乎理性的追求完成本行本業的使命感。日本的成功并不在于“家”的觀念,而在于具有與儒教或儒學毫無關系的“職”(shoku)的觀念和敬業精神。另一個與此相應的傳統則源于西歐中世紀,不同職業的工匠組成自治的行業工會,以嚴密的組織保護知識產權、捍衛自身利益,同時傳承技術、改良工藝。
             
            無論哪一種,都是秦漢以降的中國社會所缺乏的,唯一略微近似的是所謂“祖傳秘方”,因為只有祖傳的才作為一門手藝完整地傳給后人作為謀生之道,但在中國社會里,這通常也只是依靠知識的壟斷而非鉆研改良來取得競爭力。因為這種“匠心”基于穩固的封建秩序,人們不能隨意變換職業,因而只能一代代不斷琢磨、改進這門手藝。相反,“在中國,由于職業也不是世襲的,故職業意識或職業倫理之類的觀念也很不發達。”(溝口雄三《中國的沖擊》)元明時期雖然有匠戶、軍戶等特定職業類別,但這與中國秦漢以后階層流動的社會心理相違背,加上職業歧視、繁重勞役,因而都是行之不久,人們就都紛紛想盡辦法脫離匠籍。更重要的是,日本的“職人”有世襲性的私有財產權意識,西歐的行業工會更不必說,為捍衛自身財產利益甚至可以對抗君主,因而他們即便一直只做一門手藝,生活都是有保障的,不像中國的匠戶只承擔勞役而無獨立財產權。
             
            英國經濟史學者約翰·希克斯曾指出,社會分工的專門化“實際上是一個規模經濟學的問題”,有賴于“需求的集中”,而除了市場之外,另一個途徑就是國家或領主的專門需求(這在日本體現得尤為明顯)。但無論如何,其充分發展都需要財產權的保護、法律對合同履約的保障。相比起來,中國的匠人既缺乏這樣的保障,也缺乏經濟利益層面的內在激勵。楊步偉在《一個女人的自傳》中回憶,清末民初時中國社會的風氣是“生意不照生意做”,很多熟人來看病的,不愿付錢,倒是情愿送禮、請酒或是贈匾,“結果我們領情不得實惠外,還要自己花不少錢去開發酒錢”,也就是說,你得到的是社會層面的名聲而非經濟層面的勞動報酬。
             
             
            簡單地說,匠人的“專注”最初其實是由于身份、階層流動上“別無選擇”,而財產權利又有保障,也就能安心一代代人做下來了,像日本傳承數百年的老店比比皆是;中國則相反,私有財產權意識不發達,但階層流動倒是開放的,但凡有機會,極少有人安于一門技藝。確實,在那樣的社會中,當人們進入到一個有保障的體系內部時,也會想著一代代占住這個肥缺,甚至想方設法把自己的親屬都安排進來,但這卻并沒有帶來技術上的精益求精,因為人們缺乏這樣的內在驅動力——做得再好,也沒有更高的經濟回報,也仍然缺乏職業認同,一有更好的機會還是想“人往高處走”。
             
            伴隨著這種靈活性的,還有一種特殊的心態:中國人往往會抓住機會隨機應變,不知這個能做幾年,也不會那么“死心眼”,像小津安二郎那番話,換作中國人或許就會想:“只做豆腐可養不活自己,還得琢磨點別的。”這與中國社會原有的反專業化傾向結合起來,使得一個人“一生只專注于一件事”變得十分稀缺。在中國這樣一個農業社會中,很多技藝在人們心目與其說是某種“專業”,倒不如說是一種“普遍技能”,只不過有些人的手更靈巧一些罷了。張景曾在國內行走數萬公里,尋找了144種中國傳統手工藝的199位匠人,但他在《尋找手藝》一書中最終的結論也感慨于中國傳統上這種反專業化的傾向:
            頂一下
            (0)
            0%
            踩一下
            (0)
            0%
            ------分隔線----------------------------
            發表評論
            請自覺遵守互聯網相關的政策法規,嚴禁發布色情、暴力、反動的言論。
            評價:
            用戶名: 驗證碼: 點擊我更換圖片
            甘肃快3平台甘肃快3主页甘肃快3网站甘肃快3官网甘肃快3娱乐 www.86611n.com | www.39500m.com | yh888d.com | 55331z.com | www.95111w.com | 11005k.com | www.bet353654.com | pjqinghai.com | www.26243.com | a6622.com | www.97655g.com | lswjs4399.com | www.898463.com | www.1347-04.com | www.505354.com | www.hg0450.com | g17022.com | www.77731k.com | bjw918.com | t45638.com | www.929115.com | www.9679k.com | 998l.cc | www.1122333.com | 69522v.com | www.a83377.com | lq0578.net | www.rrle3.com | www.7830g.com | 8203ccc.com | www.0099xpj.net | 0166e.com | www.6889782.com | 33432r.com | www.79520b.com | www.ao499.com | www.514918.com | www.954555.com | 34i35.com | www.1764r.com | 2677ccc.com | www.703890.com | 238sj.com | www.06820p.com | qqq7570.com | www.5095v.com | www.365815g.com | am56.cc | www.6768992.com | www.6491r.com | 22mm8332.com | www.qiji666.com | 3049r.com | 88851m.com | www.43468.com | 4809v.com | www.324770.com | www.19yh8.com | 13222p.com | www.88jcw.com | www.91221.com | 1654g.com | www.84499s.com | www.js4333.com | www.104665.com | 99835.com | www.68689i.com | www.vv88ss.com | 8f06.com | www.666507.com | www.886662.com | 4340o.com | www.902271.com | www.d5680.com | 7742l.com | www.083065.com | www.bb673888.com | jsh600.com | 8988dd.com | www.388158.com | www.dh70507.com | 623670.com | www.ybao3.com | www.8967l.com | 6641ww.com | 3121ww.com | www.49956y.com | www.ggv.99233v.com | swtyxxx.com | x5039.com | www.7366002.com | www.yh567.com | 4880m.com | www.08500w.com | www.yd3555.com | w14666.com | www.178625.com | www.00778v.com | www.56733n.com | rrr8827.com | jjjj000.com | 900.com | www.c5819.com | www.amdc0088.com | 9149q.com | k1.z6528.com | www.77802p.com | www.393222.com | vip1524.com | 28288c.com | www.5095o.com | www.7334c.com | www.e32126.cc | 6002b.com | www.88yfa.com | www.00773f.com | www.hg567000.com | 0805q.com | www.874918.com | www.3383066.com | www.9068uu.com | 37688u.com | www.pkfc8.com | www.wns123a.com | www.2088xpj.com | 73657s.com | 4022o.com | www.496918.com | www.55238h.com | www.499456.com | r47479.com | 11683388.com | x62365.com | www.js79902.com | www.5y.cc | 55797h.com | 7893dns.com | www.558423.com | www.u94600.com | www.393222.com | www.vns9984.com | bet28f.com | 7727.com | www.904829.com | www.030158.com | www.888zhenren20.com | 155.net | 9646q.com | 3089.com | www.607265.com | www.hg9209.com | www.hg6913.com | 365225b.com | 92266z.com | 56333.com | www.742255.com | www.c2894.com | www.499456.com | www.pj9087.com | 33ff8331.com | 52599w.com | 4635588.com | www.694010.com | 6220q.com | 67890hhh.com | k1.z6528.com | www.183676.com | www.3416f.com | www.1466r.com | www.64566e.com | www.pj98914.com | 22296zdl.com | 4023i.com | 37688z.com | 3304nn.com | www.68689e.com | www.745899.com | www.09500w.com | www.hg77720.com | www.4196v.com | www.123588.com | e62365.com | www.404677.com | www.36787d.com | www.350c6.com | www.57800z.com | www.314455.com | www.8814e9.com | www.df997.com | 56988n.vip | 3566.com | 162788.com | 66094466.com | 73999u.com | 50099x.com | 159666x.com | bh889933.com | 7681006.com | cp088s.com | 256777k.com | www.101377.com | www.508869.com | www.708282.com | www.32031y.com | www.5049v.com | www.19333l.com | www.cr666.com | x08199.com | 88807n.com | x5816.com | www.50732i.com | www.677375.com | www.hc3849.com | www.csgc3.com | www.4189d.com | www.33588p.com | www.0601q.com | www.16065u.com | www.9971003.com | www.24199.com | www.71071p.com | www.4938w.com | www.407776.com | www.4446333.com | www.byd001.com | y33.com | 3258i.com | 922545.com | 3467c.cc | www.85770e.com | www.vns9999.cc | www.yddc666.com | www.67797s.com | www.yh6118.com | www.3412277.com | www.96662949.com | www.777444m.com | www.138555555.com | www.1166hg.com | www.as0003.com | www.4625o.com | www.88837k.com | www.55115454.com | www.hg130.com | www.773333.com | www.5966nnn.com | www.j0055.com | www.138578.com | www.04567u.com | www.130013.com | www.4809l.com | www.ampj3436.com | www.8816p.com | www.34972.com | www.16878p.com | www.c2656.com | www.401265.com | 1665k.com | www.35252s.com | www.hs066.com | www.40288z.com | www.hd8676.com | www.8816p.com | www.689744.com | www.77802u.com | 1634x.com | 777hg444.com | 55442007.com | www.dz578.com | www.91599t.com | www.444230.com | www.55060n.com | www.48330f.com | www.00840w.com | www.773593.com | 9964b.com | 预览7779o.cc | 3522q.vip | 3651462.com | 4379b.com | www.00618y.com | www.ylg07.com | www.y3410.com | www.0659.com | www.809216.com | www.336779.com | fff5682.com | w11.vip | vip4357.com | 8547oo.com | www.546991.com | www.778l.com | www.881313.com | www.84158.com | www.90egg.com | www.98528i.com | 1489p.com | 8547v.com | www.298345.com | www.445466.com | www.xpj915.com | www.81520q.com | www.645411.com | stsvip9.com | 3656uu.com | 27878xx.com | www.344559.com | www.377666e.com | www.8039j.com | www.109026.com | 3522.cc | 7240u.com | www.63877y.com | www.qj2.co | www.6482.com | www.293255.com | 118888c.com | 78365.com | www.bet3651014.com | www. | 55885156.com | www.g78306.com | JS1388t.com | www.777444l.com | www.gt111666.com | www.33015.cc | ff555g.com | h51335.net | www.lfg222.com | www.80188r.com | www.55cmc.com | 51335e.com | 063801.com | 3434xxx.com | www.3939mmm.com | www.38775qq.com | www.2373g.com | 78111155.com | 1231313.com | www.hg8968.com | www.7036s.com | www.649770.com | 02489.net | 1594002.com | www.4756.com | www.51331j.com | www.96386e.com | www.9996yy.com | www.347177.com | 8159yy.cc | www.4853a.com | www.79095d.com | www.901370.com | 8742bb.com | www.ab218.com | www.04567e.com | www.cai004.vip | 1654dd.com | 88535f.com | www.4694b.com | www.hj1991.com | 1705l.com | www.hg67888.com | www.v01888.com | www.566011.com | www.7681002.com | www.106167.com | 4182o.com | www.44508.com | www.21202t.com | ly8004.com | 54141188.com | www.7225p.com | www.611036.com | 41188811.com | www.58777m.com | www.42842810.com | 6647s.com | 5003.cc | www.80188p.com | www.370933.com | 878365nn.com | www.cfcp777.com | www.qucw9.com | 1213121.com | www.hg1668.com | www.6482x.com | qzone6.com | www.bmw9964.com | www.820021.com | www.191060.com | 7788.tt | www.38345i.com | www.560231.com | 3506.com | www.000amdc.com | www.hf0886.com | vip0040.com | www.990998.com | www.5086t.com | 0419y.com | www.xpj1511.com | www.62500.cc | 98345r.com | www.8366uu.com | www.281877.com | 5448099.com | www.hg4480.com | www.ybao7.com | l67890.com | www.58atv.com | www.810612.com | dzc08.com | www.18484.com | www.949403.com | 550111i.com | www.922908.com | www.105180.com | 97618a.com | www.56011f.com | 6175uu.com | hg168y.com | www.559999.vip | 58588n.com | www.617701.com | www.87087.com | 33999193.com | www.3215503.com | www.ct8866.com | 62222s.com | www.829797c.com | v93902.com | bc080.com | www.47506w.com | 7893900.com | www.206365.com | www.43818y.com | aaa5701.com | www.e526688.com | www.33598i.com | www.pjliaoning.com | www.77996b.com | 7003p.com | www.7796877.com | kk2649.com | www.caipiao050.com | www.tj92.com | 68963999.com | www.959595.la | 866666.org | www.hg7329.com | www.183498.com | www.hg6789.com | www.23636f.com | 66681k.com | www.1754y.com | blh888.vip | www.ks4499.com | www.66332e.com | www.vns9938.com | www.qml5.com | 2127e.com | www.hg8884.com | 38398.com | www.k30.com | xg8111.com | www.bali777.com | www.847677.com | 5647l.com | www.36166s.com | 2142288.com | www.8998755.com | 5657.com | www.885608.com | 2566h6.com | www.55070w.com | sn6059.com | www.8828fh.com | 00774aa.com | www.hg6288.com | www.196806.com | www.00829c.com | www.731996.com | 2613e.com | www.t98478.com | 77606m.com | www.7036g.com | 09200444.com | www.11888js.com | 039da.com | www.c456x.com | 2820q.com | www.487333.com | 11qq8331.com | www.39266.com | 305566.top | www.hz444.com | www.501264.com | www.dy4411.com | www.454589.com | www.4938q.com | www.178739.com | www.22235b.com | 433yh.com | www.521138.com | 22207a.com | www.811811.com | 7240z.com | www.1754n.com | uu67890.com | www.1358002.com | yf2111.com | www.7116b.com | www.5550105.com | www.603774.com | www.58777j.com | 7720s.com | www.lqz.hk | 9737aa.me | www.4996yn.com | so1111.cc | www.52062a.com | 8547q.com | www.50051b.com | 85323.com | www.544010.com | www.427567.com | 3679ii.com | www.3116c.com | 4488ss.com | www.97655m.com | 5003hhh.com | www.599046.com | www.3534y.com | 5350s.com | www.huangma23.com | 23599k.com | www.50732n.com | www.88517888.cc | www.195880.com | www.67810.com | 61828.com | www.367777.cc | 131e.net | www.186792.com | www.157234.com | pjshanxi.com | www.720650.com | 2247w.com | www.574277.com | www.ok633.com | 3467v.am | www.720650.com | www.22266638.com | 00773e.com | www.vns0988.com | 00773cc.com | www.c5636.com | www.794933.com | 1591hhh.com | www.72890.com | www.long6668.com | 10222.com | www.06387744.com | dh2267.com | www.490780.com | www.79500e.com | 3559bbbb.com | www.976387.com | www.js2021.com | afcp07.com | www.966735.com | www.wn2098.com | 168cp-h.com | www.07679e.com | 57157g.com | 29918bb.com | www.2021f.com | 2643b.com | baifucaipiao.com | www.yh67.net | 566670066.com | 8294c.com | www.73990r.com | 87665n.com | bjqxgs.com | www.752848.com | 121ccc.com | 9539t.com | www.bet3651687.com | www.hg45888.com | wx3355.com | www.x666678.com | www.365109h.com | 53694567.com | www.15b32.net | www.8124i.com | 706809.net | www.yh76vv.com | www.58777y.com | j669933.com | www.yw344.com | www.pj7608.com | 112c.net | www.137651.com | www.3824.com | www.5665699.com | jixiang10.com | www.65707b.com | www.333133n.com | 9566560.com | www.605999aa.com | www.bccp877.com | 30007m.com | 7792g.com | www.6482x.com | www.q24135.com | 86611x.com | www.rcw789.com | www.820032.com | www.vnsr500.com | 3156hhh.com | www.hcjt7.com | www.20110.com | 3178jj.com | 80567h.com | www.50051b.com | www.pj7608.com | 8030l.com | www.187393.com | www.780780b.com | www.2078v.com | 7726hd.com | www.156506.com | www.750041.com | www.q13608.com | rrr5657.com | www.35918o.com | 33382b.com | 6a6a.com | www.7793n.com | www.9966.so | 850834.com | 9103mm.com | www.652918.com | www.9464002.com | www.b32126.cc | 1294d.com | www.018581.com | www.9994331.com | www.gp4672.com | 9737003.com | 0136365.com | www.jcai4.com | www.70976.net | www.o27229.com | 3775v.com | 7284444.com | www.00840s.com | www.6696877.com | www.6491o.com | 32666u.com | nn500i.com | www.33997h.com | www.101045.com | www.vns993.cc | 78808a.com | 500000439.com | www.022xz.cc | www.wd00004.com | 44488h.com | 8722.com | www.315332.com | www.js20016.com | www.28281app.com | www.1347-01.com | 28839v.com | js14n.com | www.665993.com | www.9996uu.com | www.bet66622.com | 7744uuu.com | 2222k5.com | 3424.com | www.jx68.com | www.hr1833.com | www.19991m.com | www.62284.com | u7742.com | 61320055.com | www.338032.com | www.68568p.com | www.1429c1.com | www.9685.com | 50024422.com | 0003890.com | 8766549.com | www.458178.com | www.66376p.com | www.j37.cc | www.433444a.com | www.hgc444.com | 8547bb.com | 500888.com | 79889x.com | www.892070.com | www.xb8844.com | www.55070q.com | www.3534y.com | www.www-728855.com | 3482p.com | 30019ee.com | 6830d.com | www.636550.com | www.97655j.com | www.73990b.com | www.hp5868.com | www.777444j.com | 2820r.com | 9993450.com | 3559s.com | 656456.com | www.511174.com | www.3416l.com | www.1466m.com | www.w69096.com | www.15786.com | www.x9016.com | 1634e.com | 25288m.com | 1591mmm.com | 656992.com | www.399146.com | www.kc19.com | www.26163v.com | www.9187w.com | www.5446hh.com | www.657714.com | www.hg8801.com | www.vns990.cc | 89892rr.com | 99112007.com | 67890ooo.com | 9895w.com | 0729h.com | 4195cc.com | www.83033e.com | www.580820.com | www.yic9.com | www.51558.com | www.dfw993.com | www.7240g.com | www.8700666.com | www.04567w.com | www.79500o.com | www.pj5538.com | www.tjflcpw.com | www.8867p.com | www.xhtd1122.com | www.8804js.com | 55nn8331.com | pj38pj38.com | 2127bb.com | 99306o.com | 36403377.com | jj4119.com | 57bet.cc | qiangui001.com | w1429.com | 4123rr.com | 99w99.vip | 35856app.com | 409898.com | 95066666.com | 2355d.com | 44005156.com | hg11788.com | 8290a.com | 8381ll.com | 3685r.com | 4066yy.com | 97880022.net | bjqxgs.com | dzj223.com | c89qe65.com | 26444.com | 80368n.com | 3258n.com | 1259i.com | 66671b.com | a7252.com | 56811.com | 3938pp.com | 26119f.com | 9646a.com | 4018v.com | 4465d.com | nn500f.com | 9694l.com | 2373i.com | aa33334.com | www.hg9953.com | www.262xpj.com | www.88807x.com | www.hg773999.com | www.hg7651.com | www.dzvip9.com | www.668cp55.com | www.04567y.com | www.ag3344.com | www.52062k.com | www.2418o.com | www.77802n.com | www.6769r.com | www.ch8123.com | www.606920.com | www.055969.com | zhcp74.com | 667766q.com | hh03.com | 3405dd.com | 3685n.com | aa9988.net | www.23427f.com | www.suncity88.net | www.184589.com | www.5f33.com | www.1851117.com | www.4102d.com | www.dayou567.com | www.126kc.com | www.596081.com | 8520c.com | www.369061.com | 99151h.com | 2222k20.com | 940.net | 3770099.com | www.1869o.com | www.7711sb.com | www.bs9088.com | www.00772d.com | www.75600d.com | www.50080s.com | www.903588.com | www.50026o.com | 6002z.com | 41188844.com | la688.com | www.3653306.com | www.44166.com | www.89599c.com | www.55676i.com | www.5854r.cc | www.351817.com | 829330.com | 7720r.com | 2649s.com | www.76543x.com | www.hg8359.com | www.932418.com | www.78949r.com | www.658770.com | 6641ii.com | hg6686.com | 1077ddd.com | www.h7788b.com | www.hg2286.com | www.44118p.com | www.39500m.com | www.369061.com | 7334y.com | 55388.com | www.ylg89.com | www.7424.com | www.99552uu.com | www.47370.cc | www.177564.com | 0981.com | 71017g.com | www.4938g.com | www.172270.com | www.81608h.com | www.793990.com | qq1331.com | 336yh.com | www.112888.com | www.hg8205.com | www.4102m.com | www.zfcp5.com | 027652.com | 3467z.com | www.333hwx.com | www.p4042.com | www.557466.com | www.577690.com | f7454.com | 28839b.com | www.777989.com | www.7366001.com | www.055j.cc | 7945tt.com | 36406666.com | www.as0004.com | www.twcp05.com | www.77114g.com | www.051069.com | 53206655.com | www.058msc.com | www.5049p.com | www.bet73j.com | www.068657.com | 1813g.com | www.yh8007.com | www.d456x.com | www.71399p.com | hg3747.com | 13222s.com | www.8814e4.com | www.sdoroviy.com | www.ct6678.com | aipin888.net | 0080v.com | www.68683.com | www.hg6012.com | www.78700a.com | 5219b.com | www.67797y.com | www.sdoroviy.com | www.840774.com | vns8i.com | www.yh8007.com | www.4694q.com | www.gai06.com | 1859002.com | 22556b.com | www.y4042.com | www.39957b.com | 56787hb.com | jz7jz7.com | www.hy3088.com | www.34788j.com | 12qz3.com | 65005p.com | www.138cps.com | www.11025.cc | 55331bb.com | 1434f.com | www.848777r.com | www.974306.com | www.4546300.com | www.553079.com | 4590t.com | www.25288s.com | www.707772.com | www.33112v.com | 6261d.com | www.rb568.com | www.12455r.com | 828365.com | www.a1a444.cc | www.06820j.com | www.444069.com | 4136g.com | www.tyc112.com | www.81233c.com | 02edu.com | www.js7888.com | www.80188v.com | www.493600.com | v82365.com | www.56992.com | www.50026l.com | 2757r.com | www.8124d.com | www.js38678.com | www.34788u.com | 11829455.com | www.yk222b.com | www.818797.com | aa8159.cc | www.kj8018.com | www.089wy.com | 7945aa.com | www.592433.com | www.66332c.com | 4310.com | www.xpj88005.com | www.9646u.com | 8722oooo.com | www.bet365609.com | www.365002.cc | 7196ss.com | www.9374h.com | www.068633.com | 55967r.com | www.pj5848.com | www.737798.com | 3614e.com | www.302981.com | www.71071e.com | www.178982.com | 3202b.com | www.4196v.com | 61327711.com | 99932949.com | www.0612j.com | 8790t.com | www.5487567.com | www.730555.com | hgw2777.com | www.0393901.com | www.33112f.com | 69111m.com | www.49484.com | www.890992.com | 44772007.com | www.pj05x.com | www.36787e.com | 3616x.com | www.732158.com | 1331n.com | www.jqb9.com | www.hj7987.com | 55545k.com | www.10999f.com | www.308388.com | 88553.com | www.598282c.com | 0245g.com | www.9566438.com | www.gai20.com | 00773rr.com | www.4996nn.com | 99111hh.com | www.7380e.com | www.33112k.com | yy1915.com | www.tycyl.com | 175030.com | www.lb0044.com | www.99830.cc | 5856ooo.com | www.hg8ii.com | 91709.com | www.2078f.com | www.hcjt5.com | 66992007.com | www.6868.tw | 90307i.com | www.hk278.com | www.328477.com | www.410zr.com | www.66376hh.com | 4541l.com | www.26123jj.com | 38365p.com | www.xy5050.com | www.djcp001.com | h0186.com | www.66653f.com | 3405jjj.com | www.730016.com | 047106.com | www.222bet365.cc | 8520q.com | www.2061368.com | www.854766.com | 2455d.com | www.77802c.com | 4018zz.com | www.32031w.com | 90856e.com | www.1168k.com | www.668cp66.com | ca5055.com | www.js645.com | www.49956u.com | www.09569y.com | www.598411.com |